Semen Donor Screening Guide
Xytex takes the health of our donors and our recipients seriously. Before being approved, every potential
donor is required to complete a comprehensive
Medical History Questionnaire (MHQ).
The questionnaire includes
questions regarding the health of the donor and the donor's blood relatives.* Also included are questions for
high risk behaviors, questions developed by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Any affirmative answer to the CDC questions automatically disqualifies a potential donor. All questionnaires
are reviewed by the Xytex Medical Director.
If a donor's MHQ is acceptable, the donor is screened,
but not specifically tested for certain diseases and behaviors based on information
provided to Xytex on the MHQ. The following testing is completed on all donors:
- Physical examination for evidence of sexually transmitted disease
- Initial lab testing, including:
- Complete blood count
- Blood typing
- HIV 1/2 + O antibody testing
- HIV/HCV/HBV NAT
- Hepatitis B surface antigen
- Hepatitis B core antibody testing
- Hepatitis C antibody testing
- Cytomegalovirus antibody testing (total). If total is positive, then IgG & IgM are tested **
- Syphilis serology (RPR and TP-PA)
- HTLV I & II antibody screening
- Full genital culture which includes testing for gonorrhea
- Urine PCR testing for chlamydia and gonorrhea
Xytex strives to perform screening and testing for genetic disease in a thoughtful and rational
manner for common and relevant conditions.
As genetic knowledge and testing technology have advanced Xytex has expanded carrier testing of donors. Shortly after
the cystic fibrosis gene was discovered in the late-1980's Xytex began testing donors.
Over the years, the testing panel has grown to include almost two dozen genetic diseases.
In addition to chromosome analysis (karyotype), Xytex currently tests all* donors for carrier
status of the following conditions:
- Bloom syndrome
- Canavan disease
- Cystic fibrosis
- Familial dysautonomia
- Familial hyperinsulinism (ABCC8-related)
- Fanconi anemia (Group C)
- Gaucher disease
- Glycogen storage disease (Type Ia)
- Hemoglobinopathies (sickle cell disease and major thalassemias)
- Joubert syndrome 2
- Maple syrup urine disease (Types IA, IB, and 3)
- Mucolipidosis (Type IV)
- Nemaline myopathy NEB-related)
- Niemann-Pick disease (Types A and B)
- Spinal muscular atrophy (SMN1-related)
- Tay-Sachs disease
- Usher syndrome (Types IF and III)
- Walker-Warburg syndrome (FKTN-related)
*Donors who joined Xytex's program prior to 2012 may not have been tested for all of the conditions
listed above. Each donor's profile includes a list of the genetic conditions for which he has been tested.
Genetics is very complicated and testing can only reduce,not eliminate, the risk of a donor being a carrier
of a particular condition. Please take a moment to review
"Brief Introduction to Basic Genetics"
to learn more about genetics and "Genetics FAQs"
to learn more about genetic screening and testing of donors.
In addition, at each semen donation, the donor is asked the following questions.
If he answers yes, he is referred to the Donor Counselor and if needed,
the medical director, for further evaluation.
- Do you have a new sexual partner?
- Have you engaged in any high risk behavior?
- Have you had a fever with a headache for a week, been diagnosed with West Nile, encephalitis or meningitis?
- Have you had any urethral discharge or ulcers, genital warts, a contagious skin disease or a recent vaccination?
All Xytex donors have been screened for symptoms of West Nile Virus and SARS at each
donation and on the medical history questionnaire.
As long as the donor continues to participate in the program, he is required to repeat lab testing
at a minimum of six-month intervals for HIV 1/2 + O, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, cytomegalovirus,
syphilis, HTLV I & II, gonorrhea, and chlamydia.
He is also required to update his medical history and to have a physical
examination every six months. At this time he is asked about the occurrence of
any new disease within his family. If there is a change in status, the donor's
profile is updated with the new information. The questionnaire itself is updated
as necessary to ensure that Xytex is in compliance with new regulations or Xytex
*It is important to note that the medical history provided by the donor is not
validated by reviewing the donor's or his family's private medical records.
**Xytex tests each donor for Cytomegalovirus (CMV), an extremely common virus that nearly
every adult has at one time or another. You will note the appropriate icon beside each donor
to reflect his CMV IgG status. Whether the icon indicates positive or negative does not qualify or
disqualify the donor. Xytex accepts samples from a donor with an IgG positive result which
indicates a non-active CMV infection. An IgM positive result indicates an active CMV infection
and the donor is considered unacceptable. Xytex recommends that you discuss the CMV status of your
donor with your doctor if you have any questions or concerns.